The human scourge of Covid-19 pandemic, first reported to the World Well being Group (WHO) in December 2019, continues with undiminished depth.
Globally, there have been over 25 million confirmed instances of COVID-19 reported by the WHO together with over 840,000 deaths as of thirty first August 2020. In line with the WHO knowledge,Africa has over 1.2 million reported instances with practically 29,000 confirmed deaths inside the identical interval.
By August 31, 2020, Ghana had recorded 44,298 COVID-19 instances with 276 confirmed deaths.
The Yiadom Index
This paper introduces a brand new index, the Yiadom Index, for assessing the relative impression of COVID-19 on totally different areas in Ghana. In the middle of analysing Covid-19 knowledge collected from the Ghana Well being Service, Ministry of Well being, the author has developed a technique for measuring the regional impression of the pandemic within the nation.
The technical particulars of this system, together with the process for testing the reliability of the outcomes, had been revealed in GhanaWeb on August 12, 2020. The index derived from the appliance of the methodology is now known as the Yiadom Index.
The Yiadom Index for COVID-19 regional impression evaluation is a composite index derived from the share of a regionin the newest nationwide inhabitants census and the corresponding share within the cumulative reported instances of Covid-19.
At any given cut-off date, the Yiadom Index is obtained from the proportion factors differential between a area’s inhabitants share and the corresponding Covid-19 share.
For instance, for Central Area, the inhabitants share is 8.93 % (from the 2010 census knowledge) whereas the Covid-19 share in August 2020 is 4.23 % (based mostly on the cumulative reported instances for that month) thus giving a proportion factors differential of 4.7 which is the Yiadom Index for the Area in August.
The Yiadom Index of 4.7 for the Central Area is a numerical scale by which the Area will be in contrast with different Areas within the nation. A optimistic Yiadom Index implies a comparatively higher Covid-19 impression in comparison with a detrimental Index.
Some sensible functions of the Yiadom Index, notably its utility in aiding coverage initiatives to stop the unfold of the illness and save lives, will now be thought of.
Desk 1.0 gives comparative outcomes of the Yiadom Index measures for the areas of Ghana in July and August 2020. For the reason that methodology requires a regional inhabitants share throughout the newest census in 2010, the 4 areas which had been affected by the creation of latest areas in 2018, particularly, Northern, Western, Volta and Brong Ahafo, have been pulled collectively for analytical functions to make the evaluation full.
The reliability of the July and August index measures is established by the truth that all of the regional indices for each July and August add as much as zero as proven within the Desk.
From Desk 1.0, Northern Area together with the Savannah and the North East ranked first in August with the Yiadom Index of 8.69 thus sustaining its main place in July.
The Volta Area together with Oti Area ranked second with an index of 6.57 adopted by Japanese Area within the third place with an index of 5.5.
It’s famous right here that the Volta and Japanese Areas have switched positions from July to August. The opposite Areas with optimistic Yiadom Index had been Brong Ahafo Area comprising Bono, Ahafo and Bono East Areas which ranked fourth with an index of 5.35; Central Area ranked fifth with an index of 4.7, Higher East sixth with an index of three.6, Higher West seventh with an index of two.65 and Western together with Western North rating eight with an index of 1.58.
Two areas which recorded detrimental Yiadom Index measures had been Higher Accra Area with an index of -33.53 and Ashanti Area with an index of -5.09.
The reliability of the Yiadom Index measures for the areas is attested by the truth that the full values of the eight areas within the optimistic zone, 38.6, and the full of the 2 areas within the detrimental zone, -38.6, add as much as zero thus satisfying the invariance situation of the methodology.
Chart 1.1 gives a visible illustration with graphs depicting the inhabitants share as blue and Covid-19 share as crimson. It’s simply seen from the graphs that the blue line representing the inhabitants share is above the crimson line representing Covid-19 share within the case of the eight areas with optimistic Yiadom index whereas within the case of the 2 areas with detrimental Yiadom index, the reverse is the case.
It will also be seen from the 2 areas created between the graphs that the optimistic area on the left representing the sum of the optimistic Yiadom Index values for the eight areas is the same as the detrimental area on the suitable created by the 2 areas with detrimental Yiadom Index values.
This gives a transparent visible demonstration why the sum of all the 2 areas created by the graphs, the optimistic and detrimental areas, should be identically zero to underscore the reliability of the varied Yiadom Index values.
Bar Chart 1.2 gives additional visible readability with every area being represented by three bars; the left bar representing the inhabitants share whereas the center and proper bars signify the COVID-19 share for July and August respectively.
For every area, the Yiadom Index for July is obtained from the distinction between the left and center bars whereas the index for August is obtained from the distinction between the left and proper bars.
The values of the Yiadom measures obtained for the areas from this Bar Chart types the idea for constructing the Yiadom Index Chart for July and August 2020.
Chart 1.3 presents a graphic instance of the Yiadom Index for COVID-19 regional impression evaluation in for July and August 2020. For every area, the bar on the left represents the Yiadom index for July whereas the bar on the suitable represents the index for August 2020.
The areas are organized so as of magnitude of the respective Yiadom Index for August. This ends in the sequential rating of the areas with the August Yiadom Index values as follows: Northern together with North East and Savannah, 8.69; Volta together with Oti, 6.57; Japanese, 5.5; Brong Ahafo, comprising Bono, Ahafo and BonoEast, 5.35; Central, 4.7; Higher East, 3.6; Higher West, 2.65; Western together with Western North, 1.58; Ashanti, -5.07 and Higher Accra, -33.53.
The Chart reveals that the bars for all of the eight areas with optimistic Yiadom Index are proven above the x-axis within the first quadrant whereas the bars for the 2 areas with detrimental index are proven beneath the x-axis within the fourth quadrant.
Benefits of the Yiadom Index
The Yiadom Index has a number of benefits. It serves as a measuring scale for figuring out Covid-19 impression on the varied areas of the nation thereby permitting comparisons to be made between them.
It gives well timed and dependable knowledge to allow acceptable response interventions to boost the pandemic management programmes. On this approach, it contributes to the hassle to cease the unfold of the pandemic and save lives.
It’s also used to watch and consider the development of the pandemic within the nation and throughout the areas. Once more, it facilitates the prioritization of coverage initiatives in a cheap method to redirect consideration to the place it’s most wanted.
Moreover, it assists in well being promotion by empowering people and communities to decide on wholesome behaviours that scale back the chance of creating power ailments and different morbidities.
For instance, the outcomes of the Root-Based mostly survey performed in New Juaben in February 2020 revealed that the 4 important ailments afflicting the communities had been malaria, cholera, typhoid and measles which collectively account for practically 92 per cent of the full responses.
Armed with such data, the Root-Based mostly institutional members, who shaped a volunteer group to disseminate very important data on COVID-19 security protocols of their respective communities, had been additionally instructed to teach the communities on the necessity to management the unfold of the 4 ailments as properly.
This mechanism didn’t solely function a robust catalyst for well being promotion but in addition allowed for broad residents involvement to make sure optimum outcomes.
The pandemic received’t be managed within the nation till it’s managed in all of the areas therein. That’s why it’s a matter of essential significance and nationwide curiosity to contain the residents on the neighborhood stage in all of the areas.
With out residents inclusion, the pandemic will persist longer than it in any other case would, and the nation will bear the unwarranted penalties.
Communities throughout the nation ought to subsequently be inspired to type volunteer teams much like the Root-Based mostly ones for the aim of aiding to battle the pandemic of their respective communities.
It’s strongly really useful that the nation adopts a holistic nationwide well being promotion technique that may contain the residents on the neighborhood stage.
This well being promotion technique ought to cowl each Covid-19 and malaria which is endemic and perennial in all components of Ghana. This twin method is taken into account needed as a result of in response to the newest Ghana Well being Service knowledge on causes of hospital admissions within the nation, practically 25 per cent (24.27%) of all causes of hospital admissions in 2017 had been resulting from malaria.
Such a programme will, subsequently, present a cheap solution to handle each COVID-19 and malaria within the nation.
Well being promotion, as outlined by the World Well being Group, “allows individuals to extend management over their very own well being.
It covers a variety of social and environmental interventions which might be designed to profit and shield particular person individuals’s well being and high quality of life by addressing and stopping the foundation causes of in poor health well being, not simply specializing in remedy and remedy.”
Thus, well being promotion helps to interrupt the pathway of illness transmission because it improves wellness and particular person selections that contribute to optimistic well being behaviours and outcomes.
Authorities and the personal sector are anticipated to assist this neighborhood volunteer constructing initiative for well being promotion whereas the Ministry of Well being is anticipated to liaise with the volunteer teams to operationalise the technique.
A excessive diploma of neighborhood involvement is taken into account crucial in figuring out, to a big extent, the general public acceptance and correct use of the hygienic protocols to optimise the preventive intervention outcomes of Covid-19 and malaria.
It’s hoped that the related stakeholders will undertake the Yiadom Index and related suggestions to assist in transferring Ghana’s well being profile on a better pedestal.
In regards to the creator: Daasebre Professor (Emeritus) Oti Boateng is the Omanhene of New Juaben, Chancellor of All Nations College and former Authorities Statistician.